A definition of Progressive Rock Music
Progressive rock (often shortened to prog or prog rock) is a form of
rock music that evolved in the late 1960s and early 1970s as part of a
"mostly British attempt to elevate rock music to new levels of artistic
credibility." The term "art rock" is often used interchangeably with
"progressive rock", but while there are crossovers between the two
genres, they are not identical.
Progressive rock bands pushed "rock's technical and compositional
boundaries" by going beyond the standard rock or popular
verse-chorus-based song structures. Additionally, the arrangements
often incorporated elements drawn from classical, jazz, and world
music. Instrumentals were common, while songs with lyrics were
sometimes conceptual, abstract, or based in fantasy. Progressive rock
bands sometimes used "concept albums that made unified statements,
usually telling an epic story or tackling a grand overarching theme."
Progressive rock developed from late 1960s psychedelic rock, as part
of a wide-ranging tendency in rock music of this era to draw
inspiration from ever more diverse influences. The term was applied to
the music of bands such as King Crimson, Yes, Genesis, Pink Floyd,
Jethro Tull, Soft Machine and Emerson, Lake and Palmer. Progressive
rock came into most widespread use around the mid-1970s. While
progressive rock reached the peak of its popularity in the 1970s and
early 1980s, neo-progressive bands have continued playing for faithful
audiences in the subsequent decades.
Form: Progressive rock songs either avoid common popular music song
structures of verse-chorus-bridge, or blur the formal distinctions by
extending sections or inserting musical interludes, often with
exaggerated dynamics to heighten contrast between sections. Classical
forms are often inserted or substituted, sometimes yielding entire
suites, building on the traditional medleys of earlier rock bands.
Progressive rock songs also often have extended instrumental passages,
marrying the classical solo tradition with the improvisational
traditions of jazz and psychedelic rock. All of these tend to add
length to progressive rock songs, which may last longer than twenty
Timbre (instrumentation and tone color): Early progressive rock
groups expanded the timbral palette of the then-traditional rock
instrumentation of guitar, organ, bass, and drums by adding instruments
more typical of jazz or folk music, such as flute, saxophone and
violin, and more often than not used electronic keyboards,
synthesizers, and electronic effects. Some instruments – most notably
the Moog synthesizer and the Mellotron – have become closely associated
with the genre.
Rhythm: Drawing on their classical, jazz, folk and experimental
influences, progressive rock artists are more likely to explore time
signatures other than 4/4 and tempo changes. Progressive rock generally
tends to be freer in its rhythmic approach than other forms of rock
music. The approach taken varies, depending on the band, but may range
from regular beats to irregular or complex Time Signatures.
Melody and Harmony: In prog rock, the blues inflections of
mainstream rock are often supplanted by jazz and classical influences.
Melodies are more likely to be modal than based on the pentatonic
scale, and are more likely to comprise longer, developing passages than
short, catchy ones. Chords and chord progressions may be augmented with
6ths, 7ths, 9ths, and compound intervals; and the I-IV-V progression is
much less common. Allusions to, or even direct quotes from, well-known
classical themes are common. Some bands have used atonal or dissonant
harmonies, and a few have even worked with rudimentary serialism.
Texture and imagery: Ambient soundscapes and theatrical elements may
be used to describe scenes, events or other aspects of the concept. For
example, Leitmotif is used to represent the various characters in
Genesis' "Harold the Barrel" and "Robbery, Assault and Battery." More
literally, the sounds of clocks and cash registers are used to
represent time and money in Pink Floyd's The Dark Side of the Moon.
Technology: To aid timbral exploration, progressive rock bands were
often early adopters of new electronic musical instruments and
technologies. The mellotron, particularly, was a signature sound of
early progressive bands. Pink Floyd utilized an EMS Synthi A
synthesizer equipped with a sequencer on their track "On the Run" from
their 1973 album Dark Side of the Moon. In the late 1970s, Robert
Fripp, of King Crimson, and Brian Eno developed an analog tape loops
effect (Frippertronics). In the 1980s, Frank Zappa used the Synclavier
for composing and recording, and King Crimson utilized MIDI-enabled
guitars, a Chapman Stick, and electronic percussion.
Concept albums: Collections of songs unified by an elaborate,
overarching theme or story are common to progressive rock. As songs by
progressive rock acts tend to be quite long, such collections have
frequently exceeded the maximum length of recorded media, resulting in
packages that require multiple vinyl discs, cassettes, or compact discs
in order to present a single album. Concepts have included the
historical, fantastical, and metaphysical, and even, in the case of
Jethro Tull's Thick as a Brick, poking fun at concept albums.
Lyrical themes: Progressive rock typically has lyrical ambition
similar to its musical ambition, tending to avoid typical rock/pop
subjects such as love, dancing, etc., rather inclining towards the
kinds of themes found in classical literature, fantasy, folklore,
social commentry or all of these. Peter Gabriel (Genesis) often wrote
surreal stories to base his lyrics around, sometimes including
theatrical elements with several characters, while Roger Waters (Pink
Floyd) combined social criticism with personal struggles with greed,
madness, and death.
Presentation: Album art and packaging is often an important part of
the artistic concept. This trend can be seen to have begun with The
Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band and played a major part
in the marketing of progressive rock. Some bands became as well known
for the art direction of their albums as for their sound, with the
"look" integrated into the band's overall musical identity. This led to
fame for particular artists and design studios, most notably Roger Dean
for his work with Yes, and Hipgnosis for their work with Pink Floyd and
several other progressive rock groups.
Stage theatrics: Beginning in the early 1970s, some progressive rock
bands began incorporating elaborate and sometimes flamboyant stage
theatrics into their concerts. Genesis lead singer Peter Gabriel wore
many different colourful and exotic costumes in one show and frequently
acted out the lyrical narrative of the songs, and the band used lasers
and giant mirrors synchronized with the music. Yes incorporated
futuristic stage sets designed by Roger Dean, including massive
spaceship props and complex lighting. Yes also performed
'in-the-round', with the band on a round stage set up in the middle of
the arena. Jethro Tull released rabbits on stage (see here). One of
ELP's many stage antics include Emerson's "flying piano" at the
California Jam concert, in which a Steinway grand piano would be spun
from a hoist. Pink Floyd used many stage effects, including crashing
aeroplanes, a giant floating pig, massive projection screens, and, in
1980, an enormous mock brick wall for The Wall performances. Rush
incorporated lasers and film backdrops into their stage show. Frank
Zappa and The Mothers of Invention used a giant giraffe prop and did
improvisational comedy skits. Marillion's former lead singer Fish wore
a jester costume inspired by the band's first album, Script for a
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
The development of Progressive Rock Music
Written by Lucas BIELA
The development of Progressive Rock Music, a difficult task
Late 60s and beginning of the 70s
I would say it all began with psychedelic music, i.e. essentially Jimi
Hendrix and earlier PINK FLOYD (all their stuff with Syd Barrett). Some
people say that The BEATLES also had a contribution to the prog
movement). Then came bands such as KING CRIMSON and YES at the end of
the sixties. KING CRIMSON, along with VAN DER GRAAF GENERATOR (VDGG)
helped define a sub-genre of the progressive music called hard prog
('hard' referring to the tormented atmosphere of their records, however
"In The Court In The Crimson King" is symphonic prog). YES were playing
symphonic rock, so called because of the use of a symphonic orchestra.
GENESIS were already recording at the end of the sixties but their
links to the progressive rock were not yet defined. With the album
"Trespass", things became clear about GENESIS. YES and GENESIS remain
icons in symphonic rock music. Other bands followed their steps later :
GENTLE GIANT, CAMEL among others. At the same time as symphonic rock
was developing in Great Britain, many Italian bands were performing a
similar type of music : BANCO DEL MUTUO SOCCORCO (BDMS for short),
PREMIATA FORNERIA MARCONI (PFM), Le ORME, QUELLA VECCHIA LOCANDA (QVL)
among others. These two countries were the most prolific as far as
progressive rock is concerned.
Let's go back to England to focus on another sub-genre that comes from
the Canterbury country. CARAVAN defined that sub-genre with their
second album and bands like HATFIELD AND THE NORTH and later NATIONAL
HEALTH followed (plus a band that didn't come from England but from
USA, HAPPY THE MAN). The first GONG album ("Camembert Electrique",
featuring Pip Pyle on drums who later joined HATFIELD and NATIONAL
HEALTH) belongs also to this sub-genre. Daevid Allen (who later founded
GONG) formed with Robert Wyatt SOFT MACHINE, a band that could be
regarded as belonging to the Canterbury scene for their first three
releases, but that turned to jazz-fusion (with "Third"), another
sub-genre that included also later Bruford and BRAND X, and in the USA
So, all the beginning of the seventies, 3 sub-genres are already
established : symphonic (YES, GENESIS), Canterbury (CARAVAN, earlier
GONG), hard prog (KING CRIMSON, VDGG).
After Syd Barrett left PINK FLOYD, their
music became softer with ethereal passages : they defined a new
sub-genre, space rock. GONG were also following the same way with
"Angel Egg" (but with humour), their best record to date. After The
YARDBIRDS split, Keith Relf formed with his wife Jane the band
RENAISSANCE, a group that blended folk music with progressive rock.
Along with JETHRO TULL, RENAISSANCE were qualified as a folk prog band.
The popularity of RENAISSANCE grew after Annie Haslam replaced Jane
Relf on vocals and they releases the great "Scheherazade And Other
Stories" in 1975. JETHRO TULL released "Aqualung" in 1971, an album
that is considered as a classic today, but I would recommend the
flow-up "Thick As A Brick" as an introduction to their contribution to
the folk prog scene.
Another sub-genre of the progressive rock was also developing in the
seventies : art rock, led by bands such as SUPERTRAMP, ROXY MUSIC, 10
CC. These groups were playing a simpler music than in the other prog
sub-genre. In Germany, a group called TANGERINE DREAM was playing a
music based exclusively on electronic instruments, hence their music
was called "Electronic" (or New Age"), although it may include many not
electronic instruments (as is the case for Mike OLDFIELD), VANGELIS and
SYNERGY belong also to this sub-genre. Many of the German bands that
appeared at the beginning of the seventies were classified as
"Krautrock", an additional sub-genre of the progressive rock, including
GROBSCHNITT, AMON DÜÜL, ASH RA TEMPEL. A minimalistic form of the
"electronic" music appeared also in the seventies : ambient. KRAFTWERK,
Brian ENO, CLUSTER belong to this category. Moreover, in England a
sub-genre based on improvisation and with a jazz background appeared in
1973 with the release of HENRY COW's "Leg End" (RIO, Rock In
I forgot to mention that EMERSON, LAKE & PALMER (ELP), band that
gathered members of KING CRIMSON, ATOMIC ROOSTER and The NICE released
albums ("Tarkus" being regarded as their best) belonging to a sub-genre
called classical prog, as they often feature a song that is an
adaptation of a piece of classical music ("Pictures At An Exibition"
for example). The NICE and Rick WAKEMAN belong also to this sub-genre,
In North America, some groups tried to mix hard rock with progressive
elements, such bands are RUSH, STYX among others (KANSAS could also be
added to this category but it is also close to the English symphonic
prog scene). They were called pomp prog as the intros and outros of
some of their songs are "pompous".
I mentioned previously the development of a jazz-fusion scene with
BRAND X (featuring Phil Collins), Bruford, and ZAPPA, the music of this
latter could be considered as a unique sub-genre (mix of jazz, doo-wap,
rock…). Another band was also strongly rooted in jazz but included also
influences ranging from Stockhausen to Duke Ellington, via opera :
MAGMA, who created the Zeuhl sub-genre, with a language intelligible
only by them ("Kobaïa").
So, at the end of the seventies you have 10 new sub-genres in the
progressive rock : art rock, folk prog, classical prog, RIO,
jazz-fusion, Zeuhl, ambient, electronic, krautrock, pomp prog
The progressive rock was supplanted by the
"punk movement" at the end of the seventies, a "music" which aim was to
prove that everyone could play music. "Punk" gave rise to the cold wave
in the eighties and prog rock was reduced to what was called neo
progressive (a simpler form of the symphonic prog but with much present
drums), and an embryo of what became at the beginning of the nineties
the metal prog . SAGA were probably the first to play this neo prog,
but MARILLION, IQ and PENDRAGON are the best representatives of this
sub-genre. Landmarq albums include "Misplaced Childhood" by MARILLION,
"Masquerade Overture ('96)" by PENDRAGON and "Ever" by IQ.
Metal prog developed with DREAM THEATER's
"Images And Words". However, in the eighties some groups were already
playing a heavy metal based progressive music : QUEENSRYCHE, FATES
WARNING, WATCHTOWER. Thanks to Mike Varney in the USA, who founded the
prog label Magna Carta, and in Europe the Inside Out Label. Apart from
metal prog. SPOCK'S BEARD were playing a symphonic prog with references
to GENTLE GIANT and GENESIS and ECHLOLYN and IZZ were playing a music
closer to neo prog. In the Northern Europe, a Scandinavian symphonic
prog scene developed with bands such as The FLOWER KJINGS, ANGLAGARD
and SINKADUS, A post RIO scene also developed with DJAM KARET, THINKING
PLAGUE… Some groups play jazz-fusion : KENSO, CARTOONE, DEUS EX
MACHINA. PORCUPINE TREE and OZRIC TENACLES play space rock. COLLAGE,
CLEPSYDRA are great bands hat are strongly influenced by IQ and
Thus, in the nineties you have a revival of the prog scene not only
with the appearance of a new sub-genre : metal prog but also with bands
playing the styles developed in the seventies.
I hope these informations will help you in your investigation.
Written by Lucas BIELA
The genres of progressive rock music
rock (shortened to prog, or prog rock when differentiating from
other... genres) is a broad and convergent style of rock music and progressive music which arose in the late 1960s , reaching the peak of its popularity in the early 1970s , but continuing as a musical form
to this day. This genre music is a catalyst to raise considerably the
level of musicanship among rock bands and bring a new level of depth
and sophistication to rock. Popular bands
associated with progressive rock include JETHRO TULL, KING CRIMSON,
GENESIS, PINK FLOYD, YES, the much-discussed newscomers ARENA, IQ,
PENDRAGON, DREAM THEATER, MARILLION, PORCUPINE TREE and many other
bands come from there. If you're not familiar with Prog Rock, it's a
rather adventure some style of music . We hope you enjoy your browse through thirty years of progressive rock
history when you visit our ‘Progressive’ and related departments.
Nowadays its more underground but with a very loyal following.
One of the most defining characteristics of prog is the
classification of bands and artists. There are various sub-genres of
progressive rock (or "prog", as it is sometimes abbreviated). People
can (and will) argue for hours about whether this or that band belongs
in this or that sub-genre. This list below is just a simple outline of
the characteristics of each sub-genre, and by NO means a strict
guideline. Remember, this is not a definitive list.
A fraternal collective of
musicians clustered around the Kentish tourist town that is home to the
Church of England's Archbishop, the Canterbury Scene provided the
cradle for a half-dozen of the most freewheeling British bands of the
post-psychedelic era. Though the direct musical similarities between
Canterbury's major bands - the Soft Machine, Caravan, Gong, Robert
Wyatt, Kevin Ayers, Hatfield & the North, Egg, National Health -
aren't overwhelming, each featured a clever synthesis of jazz
improvisation and rock rhythms with clever, intellectual songwriting
tied to psychedelia. It's no wonder the Canterbury bands became so
close, since many of its major figures began their musical careers in a
beat group called the Wilde Flowers. Together from 1963 to 1969, the
Wilde Flowers included most of the figures who later formed
Canterbury's two best bands, the Soft Machine (Robert Wyatt, Kevin
Ayers) and Caravan (Pye Hastings, David Sinclair, Richard Sinclair,
Richard Coughlan). After both the Soft Machine and Caravan released
their debut albums in 1968, they became popular in England's
psychedelic underground. By the early '70s however, a series of
fragmenting lineup changes and the subsequent formation of new bands
soon multiplied the force of the Canterbury scene. Early Soft Machine
member Daevid Allen formed Gong, and both Kevin Ayers and Robert Wyatt
eventually left the Softs to begin their own solo careers. The
musicians that led the new incarnation of the Soft Machine, including
Elton Dean and Hugh Hopper, began pushing the band in the direction of
instrumental jazz-rock. By the mid-'70s, many of the remaining
Canterbury bands had progressed from psychedelic and prog-rock to
embrace extended fusion jams with few lyrics. Many of Britain's better
avant-garde or fusion musicians of the 1970s and '80s - including Fred
Frith, Allan Holdsworth, and Peter Blegvad - also began their career
playing in Canterbury bands.
All Canterbury Scene artists list
Crossover Prog contains
progressive rock music that, though 100% progressive, may have a
musical connection to popular music-- whether it be the lack of
emphasis on extended compositions, or an influence from mainstream
music in addition to classical, jazz and folk. Compositions, however,
still exhibit a high degree of sophistication, sometimes outright
complexity, and the musicianship and virtuosity is often on a par with
established Prog acts. Much like their kin in the established prog
sub-genres, these groups will incorporate many major parts of what
defines prog rock: the fusing of rock with the structures and
discipline of more traditional musics, the use of syntheisizers and new
technologies, intelligent thematics, and the expansion of the form.
defining characteristics of Crossover Prog are a pop music influence
that is largely vacant in typical prog rock. Songs tend toward shorter,
more concise presentations though still reach beyond the typical verse,
bridge, chorus pattern. The harmonic, melodic, and rhythmic structures
may be more easily digested in Crossover while not losing the musical
integrity that a prog listener expects. Whereas Prog Related bands are
generally commercial groups with certain prog elements or players that
were involved in prog acts, Crossover Prog artists are predominantly
progressive with elements of popular music.
The most representative examples for this genre include The MOODY BLUES, SUPERTRAMP, DREDG, CINEMA SHOW, RADIOHEAD.
- written by micky (Michael) and Chus (Jesus)
All Crossover Prog artists list
The term 'eclectic' in the
context of progressive rock describes a summation of elements from
various musical sources, and the influences and career paths of bands
that take from a wide range of genres or styles. While progressive
music can be, in a larger sense, eclectic, the 'Eclectic Prog' term is
specially meant to reference bands that trespass the boundaries of
established Progressive Rock genres or that blend many influences.
Prog combines hybrids of style and diversity of theme, promoting many
elements from different sources. The Eclectic category recognizes bands
that evolved markedly over their career (in a progressive, evolutionary
way), or have a plural style without a clear referential core.
basic features lie within the music's variety, rich influences, art
tendencies and classic prog rock elements. Among the representative
bands are KING CRIMSON, VAN DER GRAAF GENERATOR, and GENTLE GIANT.
- written by Ricochet (Victor)
All Eclectic Prog artists list
represents bands which belong to neither of the first two groups and
achieve their progressiveness by being substantially more experimental
and/or artistic than their peer ... including the whole movement of
Experimental Progressive Metal
this style is related to the style "Avant-Garde Progressive Metal"
defined in the second group (Extreme/Tech Progressive Metal). The main
difference is that the bands listed here are less technical/quirky and
generally more calm/mellow than the Avant-Garde bands. Some are very
close to Post Metal - an obvious example is MAUDLIN OF THE WELL who
later turned into KAYO DOT who can be described as the Post Metal
counterpart of SIGUR RÓS (Post Rock).
bands all are more artistic than their peer. They're all experimental
to a certain extent, but not as openly as the bands of the previous
style. Some, but by no means all of them are sticking closer to
traditional, non-prog forms of metal, but the level of sophistication
in their music is much higher than that of their non-prog peer.
style is the metal counterpart to the style of "Post Rock". One common
definition of Post Rock is "Music which uses Rock instrumentation for
Non-Rock purposes". This also applies to Post Metal: The heavily
distorted guitars - which are a trademark of Metal - are often use for
texturing/layering rather than riffing, creating calm and mellow music.
This doesn't mean that there is no traditional riffing at all ... but
even then it happens at a slow pace and is often interspersed with
extended calm and mellow parts.
Post Sludge Metal
first bands who successfully implemented the style originated in a
genre called "Sludge Metal", which could also be called "Post
Hardcore". Typically these bands feature extremely aggressive vocals
(usually in the "growling" style) combined with extremely reduced and
mellow music ... still the use of heavily distorted guitars and the
slow and drawn out riffing known from "Stoner Metal" and/or "Drone
Metal" make this a sub genre of Metal.
Eclectic Post Metal
other sub styles emerged ... some bands simply removed the vocals and
thus the "Sludge" component (RED SPAROWES), others added Jazz elements
(KAYO DOT, CALLISTO).
**Written by MikeEnRegalia**
All Experimental/Post Metal artists list
Heavy Prog defines progressive
rock music that draws as much influence from hard rock as it does from
classic progressive rock. In simple terms, it is a marriage of the
guitar-based heavy blues of the late 1960s and 1970s - artists such as
Cream, Led Zeppelin, and Black Sabbath - and the progressive/symphonic
movement represented by King Crimson, Yes and Genesis.
electric guitar, amplified to produce distortion (or 'overdrive') is a
crucial element, providing the 'heavy' tone required for this
aggressive style, and later for the British and North American heavy
metal of the late 1970s and 80s. The primary rock format of drums, bass
and guitar with keys and/or vocals on top is represented strongly in
heavy prog. The presence of the Hammond organ with its deep, intense
rumble was also common among harder progressive groups such as ATOMIC
ROOSTER. Although certain other acts, such as King Crimson and Jethro
Tull, utilize a heavy guitar, bass and keyboard sound, the bulk of
their work over the years puts them in a different category.
that represent Heavy Prog would include RUSH, PORCUPINE TREE, THE MARS
VOLTA, URIAH HEEP, TEMPEST, BLACK WIDOW, DR. Z,ATOMIC ROOSTER,
WARHORSE, BIRTH CONTROL, TILES.
- written bt Atavachron (David)
All Heavy Prog artists list
metaphysical relations to oneself, to the other, the symbolism of
existence are connected, transfigured by the particular expression of
raga, classical India music. The emotion provided by this music is not
only "affective". It's a real message, an aesthetic of the nature, of
the divine, a virtue able to guide the listener to a state of emotional
trance. In the mid-60's with the launch of international success of
raga masters as Ravi Shankar, Ali Akbar Khan.European and American
artists will become more and more captivated by the dynamical relation
between mystical emotion, spirituality and music. The emergence of Raga
schools from everywhere (still perpetuating the ancestral musical
traditions), the initiatic travels of Western minimalist-modern jazz
composers (Terry Riley, Don Cherry...) to India will participate to a
growing interest for this musical universe. The emphasis on repetitive
circular rhythms, ornamentation (gamaka), the use of acoustic stringed
patterns, the sense of beatific endurance and lenghty improvisation are
the central characteristics of this music in term of practice and sound
aesthetism. Emotionally, the function on the listener is hypnotic,
voluntary trying to reach him into a higher state of consciousness,
modulating his perception of time and space. The basic conception of
"drone" (continuous sound form) will be taken back in popular music and
turned into "kosmische" electronica (70's Berlin underground). After
Seventh sons' first original but rather discreet effort simply called
"raga" (1964) and Malachi's holy music (1966), famous bands as the
Beatles in "Revolver" (1966) and Traffic in their album "Mr Fantasy"
(1967) will be seduced by the sonorities of Indian raga music. They
occasionally incorporate sitar elements to their music. Among the most
notorious artists who participate to the original dialogue between
proggy rock and Indian music we can notice many jazzy formed musicians
influenced by "world" elements (the guitarists Volker Krieger, Steve
Tibbetts, the clarinet player Tony Scott). They are often recognised to
practice a fusion between jazz rock harmonies and raga's
instrumentations (tabla, sitar.). Among them Collin Walcott and Alberto
Marsicano were Ravi Shankar's pupils. The world of "raga" rock can also
include psych folk / drone-y bands (Quintessance, Fit & Limo, Flute
& Voice, GHQ, Pelt...) and which are largely impregnated by
mysticism, sonic meditation and sitar.
All Indo-Prog/Raga Rock artists list
- The roots
of jazz rock can be traced back to RnB influenced soul-jazz artists
such as Les McCann, Grant Green and Jimmy Smith, and young British
jazzers who were forced to use electronic instruments because the local
club's acoustic instruments were reserved for the older established
jazz musicians. Probably the first jazz artists that released
recordings that mixed modern rock (circa 60s) with jazz were Larry
Coryell, Jeremy Steig, Charles Lloyd and The Soft Machine. Meanwhile
rock artists such as Cream, Grateful Dead and The Jimmy Hendrix
Experience were getting a lot of publicity and fame with their lengthy
improvisations based on blues rock and psychedelia. These rock artists
had an impact on Miles Davis who then brought a lot of media attention
to this new jazz rock genre with his Bitches Brew album. From there the
genre grew and exploded into a million different directions. One of
these directions was brass rock as exemplified by bands like Dreams,
Chicago, BS&T and If. These bands combined elements of jazz, rock
and classical music with arrangements for brass and woodwinds.
Fusion is jazz that is strongly influenced by other styles of music.
Jazz fusion is an ambiguous term that provides the first level sub-set
down from Jazz. Jazz rock is a sub-sub set from jazz via jazz fusion.
The ambiguity comes from an American tendency through the 90's and
until now, to freely interchange jazz rock and jazz fusion, when in
fact the latter term covers most hybrids of jazz fused with other forms
of music. The other styles of music that might be combined with jazz to
create fusion might include traditional music from around the world,
RnB, rock, electronic music and pop music and jazz from Africa, Latin
America, India and other places. One of the earliest examples of the
use of the term fusion comes from the Indo-jazz fusion of Joe Harriet
and John Mayer. Some of the more popular early practitioners of fusion
would include Weather Report and Herbie Hancock's Sextant. A few years
later Shakti appears on the scene and expands the boundaries of fusion
further, foreshadowing the World Fusion movement of the 90's.
jazz grew out of the British acid jazz scene of the late 80s and early
90s when DJs would play sets that mixed soul-jazz, drumnbass,
instumental hip-hop, dub regaae, blaxploitation soundtracks, early
psychedelic rock and early instrumental progressive rock. Three main
elements make nu jazz different from traditional jazz and fusion. First
of all there is less of an emphasis on instrumental virtuosity in nu
jazz, plus more use of electronics and studio trickery that emphasizes
sound textures. Finally, nu jazz tends to use more modern rhythms such
as drumnbass, hip-hop, post-rock, and various mixtures of world beat
rhythms. Progressive nu jazz artists such as Bugge Wesseltoft , Nils
Petter Molvaer and the Esbjörn Svensson Trio (E.S.T.) combine
complicated compositions with modern rhythms to create new unheard of
soundscapes. Nu jazz is strongly related to other genres, particularly
the more progressive live electronica jam bands. Sometimes it seems the
only difference between the two genres is what country the artist is
from or what scene they came up through. Nu fusion goes some steps
beyond nu.jazz and is strongly related to other genres, particularly
the more progressive live electronica jam bands.
the most progressive nu jazz, jazz-rock and fusion artists are listed
on Progarchives. All artists have elements of progressive rock in their
music (ie Jean Luc Ponty, Bill Bruford or David Sancious) or they
represent the most forward-looking and progressive element in their
genre (ie Miles Davis, Herbie Hancock or Weather Report).
John 'Easy Money'
Martin 'Alucard' Horst
All Jazz Rock/Fusion artists list
Krautrock (also called "Kosmische
musik") is a German avant-garde / experimental rock movement that
emerged at the end of the 1960's. It was intended to go beyond the
eccentricities developed by the wild psychedelic rock universe of the
US, by giving a special emphasis to electronic treatments, sound
manipulation and minimal hypnotic motifs (continuing the style of
"musique concrete" and minimalist repetitive music but within a more
Krautrock put the emphasis on
extended and ecstatic instrumental epics, neglecting the format of
conventional psych-pop songs. The term Krautrock was first used by the
British music press in a very derogatory way. The term rapidly found a
better reputation in underground music circles and finally gained a
certain popularity (thanks to the Brain-Festival Essen...)
Krautrock movement is widely associated with notorious bands such as
Popol Vuh, Amon Duul, Faust, Neu!, Ash Ra Tempel, Agitation Free, Guru
Guru, etc. With their own particular artistic expression, these musical
collectives provided rocking psychedelic incantations, mantra like
drones, melancholic lugubrious atmospheres, long and convoluted
collective improvisations, binary repetitive drum pulses, fuzz guitars,
feedback, primitive electronic noises, hallucinatory ballads, and
garage blues rock trips. Krautrock can be described as an anarchic,
intense, acid, tellurian, nocturnal, spacey, dark and oniric
"adventure" through rock music.
The most consistent years of
the Krautrock scene cover a relatively short period from 1970 to 1975.
After their first spontaneous, hyperactive and psychedelic efforts, the
bands generally split up or declined into other musical sensibilities,
more in line with mainstream rock or with ambient soundscapes.
region develops its particular musical scene, interpreting differently
the Krautrock musical structure. For instance the Berlin school focused
on "astral" synthscapes, weird electronic experimentation and acid jams
(Ash Ra Tempel, Agitation Free, Mythos, The Cosmic Jokers, Kluster...),
The Munich scene offered fuzzed out (Eastern) psych rock mantras with
some folk accents (Popol Vuh, Amon Duul, Gila, Guru Guru, Witthuser
& Westrupp...). Cologne and Dusseldorf underground scenes focused
on happenings, political rock, electronics, pulsating rhythms and clean
sounding Krautrock (Floh de Cologne, La Dusseldorf, Neu! Can...).
musical cartography is correct in the absolute but naturally reveals
some variations and exceptions. This intriguing and freak 'n' roll
1970's German scene enjoyed a rebirth in recent years thanks to a large
number of reissues (of long lost classics) published by several
independent labels (Spalax, Garden of Delights, Long Hair Music...) as
a direct result of Krautrock's musical inspiration of modern post rock
bands. There are actually some neo psychedelic rock bands who try to
hold up Krautrock, and who notably find a major place to express
themselves during the historical Burg Herzberg Festival in Germany.
All Krautrock artists list
Neo-Progressive rock (more
commonly "Neo-Prog") is a subgenre of Progressive Rock that originally
was used to describe artists strongly influenced by the classic
symphonic prog bands that flourished during the 1970s. At the beginning
of the neo-prog movement, the primary influence was early to mid-70's
Genesis. Debate over when Neo-Prog actually came into being often takes
place, with some asserting it began with Marillion's Script for a
Jester's Tear in 1983. Others contend it began with Twelfth Night at
the dawn of the 80s, while some even suggest the popular symphonic prog
band Genesis gave rise to Neo-Prog with their 1976 album, A Trick of
If one analyses the progressive movement just before
1980, then some albums which heavily influenced the Neo-Prog movement
easily come to mind: Steve Hackett - Spectral Mornings, Genesis - Wind
& Wuthering, Genesis - And Then There Were Three, Genesis - Seconds
Out, Saga - Saga, all the Camel albums between Breathless and The
Single Factor included, and some Eloy's albums, especially Silent Cries
And Mighty Echoes.
This new form of progressive rock originated
in the UK, and is most strongly associated with bands such as
Marillion, Pendragon and IQ; and while theatrical stage antics were a
part of the live performances of many artists exploring this subset of
the progressive rock genre it's the musical elements that are key to
the genre; typified by the use of atmospheric guitar and synth soloing
with symphonic leanings, with a tendency towards floating synth layers
and dreamy soloing. An additional trait is the use of modern synths
rather than vintage analogue synths and keyboards. The main reasons for
Neo-Progressive artists to be separated from the ones exploring
Symphonic Prog in the first place are the above, as well as a heavier
emphasis on song-form and melody than some of their earlier symphonic
As time went by other artists appeared that also
deviated from the norms created by the classic wave of progressive rock
artists in the 70's. The late 70's had given the world punk music; the
80's gave the world new wave; and the 90's grunge. These, as well as
other forms, had a tremendous amount of influence outside of the
progressive rock realm. The advent of the modern synth also inspired
artists like Tomita, Vangelis and Kitaro to explore dreamier musical
These and other forms of more or less newly made musical
genres influenced artists exploring progressive rock as well. Although
many artists did so within the framework of 70's progressive rock, more
and more artists developed a sound and style so heavily influenced by
these more recent musical developments that categorizing them within
the existing subgenres of progressive rock became increasingly
While the Neo-Progressive genre initially consisted of
artists exploring a modernized version of Symphonic Prog, these days
artists coined as Neo-Progressive cover a multitude of musical
expressions, where the common denominator is the inclusion - within a
progressive rock framework - of musical elements developed just prior
to and after 1980. The Neo-Progressive genre in it's refined form thus
covers a vast musical territory, to some extent covering all existing
subsets of progressive rock and also searching out towards genres as
different as new age on one side and punk and metal on the other.
Opening paragraphs written by Stonebeard, Cygnus X-2, Greenback
Revised, edited and refined April 2009 by windhawk, The Doctor and E-Dub
All Neo-Prog artists list
Post Rock/Math rock
term post-rock was coined by Simon Reynolds in issue 123 of The Wire
(May 1994) to describe a sort of music "using rock instrumentation for
non-rock purposes, using guitars as facilitators of timbres and
textures rather than riffs and powerchords."
Originally used to
describe the music of such bands as Stereolab, Disco Inferno, Seefeel,
Bark Psychosis and Pram, it spread out to be frequently used for all
sorts of jazz- and Krautrock-influenced, instrumental,
electronica-added music made after 1994. Bands from the early 1990s
such as Slint, or earlier, such as Talk Talk were influential on this
genre. As with many musical genres, the term is arguably inadequate: it
is used for the music of Tortoise as well as that of Mogwai, two bands
who have very little in common besides the fact that their music is
The aforementioned Tortoise was among the
founders of the movement. After the second Tortoise LP Millions Now
Living Will Never Die, the band became a post-rock icon. After
Millions... many bands (e.g., Do Make Say Think) began to record,
inspired by the "Tortoise-sound" and were often described as post-rock.
the late nineties, Chicago, Illinois, became the home base of many
different groups. John McEntire (of Tortoise) became an important
producer for lots of them, as well as Jim O'Rourke (of Brice-Glace,
Gastr del Sol and many more). Post-rock began to range from the slow,
guitar-based ambience of Boxhead Ensemble to the up-tempo electronica
Montreal, Quebec band Godspeed You Black Emperor!
- later renamed 'Godspeed You! Black Emperor' - brought a political
element with anti-globalization movement leanings.
By the early
2000s, the term had started to fall out of favor, while the major
artists kept on making high quality recordings. The wide range of
styles covered by the term had robbed it of its usefulness almost from
the moment it was coined.
Closely related to post-rock is the
genre known as Math rock, characterized by more percussive timbres, and
more dissonant harmonic gestures.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Post-rock".
Rock is a genre that emerged in the late 80's and that was influenced
by both the intricacies of progressive and avant-garde rock - King
Crimson, Frank Zappa, Henry Cow - and 20th century composers such as
Steve Reich and John Cage. The music is characterized by complex
structures, angular melodies and constant abrupt changes in tempo and
time signature. The name Math Rock is a term that grew out of the
Chicago scene and the artists working with engineer Steve Albini in an
effort to describe the new style.
The basic building blocks of
Math Rock can be traced back to the late 60's and 70's where
Progressive Rock artists were making more elaborate compositions than
the standard rock bands and were experimenting with song structures.
Early Avant-garde groups like Massacre, and artists such as Captain
Beefheart and John Zorn were highly influential to Math Rock bands and
traces of their music can still be heard throughout the genre. Another
big influence to the Math Rock approach was Slint with their album
"Spiderland" which showcased many techniques that Math Rock bands will
follow in the future. Punk also had significant impact on the sound of
Math Rock bands. Other notable influences are: Post-Rock, Heavy Metal,
Although there are Math Rock bands in different
countries around the world, most reside in the United States, the
Midwest in particular, and tend to be divided by regions: Pittsburgh
bands (Don Caballero, Six Horse) Chicago bands (Shellac, U.S. Maple),
Ohio bands (Keelhaul, Craw) Louisville bands (June 44, Rodan, The For
Carnation, Crain), and San Diego bands (Drive Like Jehu, Tristeza)
among others on both coasts. Japan was also an important country in the
Math Rock genre with bands like Ruins and Zeni Geva.
All Post Rock/Math rock artists list
In the wake of the 60's, a Folk
revival started on both sides of the Atlantic, and got quickly linked
with a protest movement, not always, but often linked to more left-wing
tendencies, which did not sit well with the authorities. BOB DYLAN,
JOAN BAEZ, WOODY GUTHRIE, JOHN DENVER, BUFFY STE-MARIE, but also the
FARINA couple Richard and Mimi for the US and SHIRLEY COLLINS and EWAN
McCOLL (mentor of BERT JANSCH, JOHN RENBOURN ) for the UK and HUGUES
AUFRAY in France. In Quebec, there was the "Chansoniers" phenomenon
among which CLAUDE LEVEILLE and FELIX LECLERC were the most popular,
waking up the sleepy "Belle Province" and stand up for itself from the
English rule. The English part of Canada also brought up JONI MITCHELL,
LEONARD COHEN (although he was from Montreal) and NEIL YOUNG.
DYLAN turned electric with his Highway 61 Revisited album, much to the
dislike of purists who yelled for treason, Folk Rock was born, opening
the floodgates for younger artists to turn on the electricity. As DYLAN
soon abandoned to style to create Country Rock with his next album, his
British equivalent Scotsman DONOVAN stayed true to Folk Rock. In the
US, THE BYRDS were the main promoters of the style by now, culminating
with the superb "Eight Miles High" track with a lengthy (for the times)
guitar solo of almost one minute. But countless other bands on the west
coast, such as LOVE, JEFFERSON AIRPLANE (and later its spin-off HOT
TUNA), GRATEFUL DEAD, QUICKSILVER MESSENGER SERVICE, PEARLS BEFORE
SWINE, and TIM BUCKLEY all started in the folk rock realm. Even San
Fran's SANTANA with its Latino traditional music and, on the east
coast, NY's THE LOVING SPOONFUL had folk roots. Notwithstanding the
immense popularity of SIMON & GARFUNKEL and their delicious
harmonies, Folk Rock was appealing only to the rock public as the older
generations turned their backs in folkies.
In the UK,
following on their countrymen DONOVAN, many Scotsmen were very influent
in exploring new grounds for folk rock: INCREDIBLE STRING BAND (led by
Scots Palmer and Williamson) with their two highly influential albums
"5000 Layers Or The Spirit Of The Onion" & "The Hangman's Beautiful
Daughter" and THE PENTANGLE (led by other Scots Renbourn, Jansch and
McShee and their superb bassist Danny Thompson) and its incredible
fusion of folk, blues and jazz style were very instrumental in
developing the style to the same extent as FAIRPORT CONVENTION and THE
STRAWBS who by that time were still more conventional US "west-coast
folk rock". The single artistes in folk rock became known as Folk
Troubadours were also numerous and often presented a more progressive
side of folk: AL STEWART, NICK DRAKE, ROY HARPER, TYRANOSAURUS REX
(actually a duo of Steven Took and Marc Bolan) , JOHN MARTYN etc.
the real angular album that will lead to further change of Folk Rock is
FAIRPORT CONVENTION's "Liege & Lief" album, that proved to be
highly influential for another generation of groups: this album
concentrated into electrifying seminal English traditional folk and
retained that quaint Englishness taste. It is interesting to see that
both leaders of FAIRPORT quit the band after this success to go their
respective way: Sandy Denny to a solo folk songwriting career and
Ashley Hutchings to a very traditional folk rock. By this time, most
connoisseur were talking of Acid Folk, Psych Folk, and Progressive
Folk, all having limited differences and no particularly drawn-out
limits or boundaries, but all relying on experimental or groundbreaking
adventures and good musicianship but not necessarily of an acoustic
Groups like THE THIRD EAR BAND and QUINTESSENCE relied
on eastern Indian music influences and, sometimes, medieval tones.
Other groups like the weird COMUS, THE TREES, SPIROGYRA, FOREST, the
superb JAN DUKES DE GREY (all listed in the ProgArchives) but also
TRADER HORNE, TUDOR LODGE, FOTHERINGAY, MAGNA CARTA, TIR NA NOG (all of
whom could also be in the ProgArchives) were out to break new ground
but with less commercial success as their predecessor. By 1972, all of
the glorious precursors bands were selling fewer records and had
problems renewing themselves and a newer generation of groups was
relying in a more Celtic jigs or really traditional sounds. Such as
HORSLIPS, DANDO SHAFT, STEELEYE SPAN, AMAZING BLONDEL, ALBION DANCE
BAND and SPRIGUNS OF TOLGUS. Although JETHRO TULL had some definitive
folk roots right from the start, their only albums that can be regarded
as Prog Folk are 77's Songs From The Woods and 78's Heavy Horses. Ian
Anderson (another Scots) was very keen in acoustical traditional songs.
Some Folk Troubadours such as TIM BUCKLEY and JOHN MARTYN started
turning records more and more axed towards fusing jazz and folk (a bit
in what THE PENTANGLE were doing) , others became more and more
electric and they started to be referred to as Singer Songwriters
especially those with country rock influences.
HOELDERLIN (and their fantastic debut album), EMTIDI, OUGENWEIDE, CAROL
OF HARVEST, WITTHEUSER & WESTRUPP were exploring German folk while
KALACAKRA , SILOAH and EMBRYO were indulging with Indian music. In
South America, most notably in Chile, LOS JAIVAS (very bent upon Andean
Indian music) and EL CONGRESSO (more Spanish-Latino folklore) were
using folk in their rock, so much that some press talked about them
referring it with the hateful term Inca Rock. In Quebec, the
progressive movement exploded with the cultural identity and the
Chansoniers tradition and this was carried out with LES SEGUIN and
HARMONIUM and so many more. In France, many groups were out for folk
rock such as RIBEIRO ALPS, TANGERINE, and ASGARD. In Spain, Flamenco
playing a dominant role as well as Basque folk, TRIANA, ITOIZ and
HAIZEA were the head of the movement once the Franco regime fell apart
after his death.
There is also a very important medieval
music influences dimension in some groups as the term Medieval Folk was
also mentioned for a while but apparently dropped by musicologists.
Among the UK groups are obviously GRYPHON, GENTLE GIANT and THIRD EAR
BAND, in France: MALICORNE and RIPAILLE and in Scandinavia: ALGARNAS
TRADGARD and FOLQUE.
All Prog Folk artists list
Progressive rock is not a
separate universe in music, it's a genre among many others, a voice in
the chorus and as part of a biggest scenario has points of contact with
other musical genres.
Prog Related is the category that groups bands and artists that:
- Without being 100% Prog, received clear MUSICAL influence of this genre, OR
- Are widely accepted as MUSICALLY influential to the development of Progressive Rock by the community, OR
Blend characteristics of Progressive Rock with mainstream elements
creating a final product that despite not being part of the genre is
evident that are close to Prog.
We specify the word MUSICAL
because simple performance of a determined instrument in a Prog or
mainstream band is not justification enough to include an artist, no
matter how virtuoso he/she may be, Prog Archives has to evaluate their
compositional work because the music is what determines the
characteristics of a band or an artist.
Prog Related bands are
not considered part of the genre but they have contributed in some form
in the development of Progressive Rock, the inclusion of a band is
exceptional and only after verifying that it's a contribution for the
better understanding of Prog among the members and visitors instead of
a source of confusion for the community.
Iván Melgar Morey
All Prog Related artists list
Born in the
late 60's after the expansion of avant-gardist, modern, post-modern and
minimalist experimentation, the progressive electronic movement
immediately guides us into a musical adventure around technologies and
new possibilities for composition. As an author or a searcher, the
musician often creates his own modules and electronic combinations,
deciding his own artistic and musical action. The visionary works of
Stockhausen, Subotnick, John Cage ("concrete" music, electro-acoustic
experimentation), La Monte Young, Steve Reich, Terry Riley (minimal,
micro-tonal music) express a vision of total reconstruction in the
current musical world. Luminous works such as "A Rainbow in Curved Air"
(1967) and "Silver Apples of the Moon" (1967) bring an inflexion on
opened forms and new ways to explore the essence and the physical
aspects of sounds (through time and space). "Static" textures, collages
& long running sounds, the power of technology previously exposed
in ambitious classical works will have a major impact in "popular"
After the artisan & innovative uses of
magnetic tapes, feedback, microphones, etc., the instrumental
synthesis, the elaboration of global sound forms and the
psycho-acoustic interactions will be sublimated thanks to the launch of
the analog synth. A great improvement happened in 1964 with the
appearance of the first modular synthesiser (Moog). This material (or
"invention") brings the answer to the technological aspirations of many
musicians, mainly after the release of the popular "Switched on Bach"
(Walter Carlos) and Mother Mallard's portable masterpiece (pieces
composed between 1970-73).
At the beginning of popular essays in
electronica, the pioneering technologies (in term of recording and
sound transmission) will not be abandoned. For instance, "Tone Float"
(1969) by Organisation (pre-Kraftwerk), "Zwei Osterei" &
"Klopzeichen" (1969-70) by Kluster and "Irrlicht" (1972) by Klaus
Schulze will carry on the domestication of the electric energy and the
use of refined harmoniums, organs and echo machines. During the 70's
decade, European groups & musicians such as Eno, Kraftwerk and
Tangerine Dream will make their name in the music industry thanks to an
abundant use of analog synthesisers and original electronic
combinations. After weird, mysterious experimentation on conventional
acoustic & electric instruments, Kraftwerk enjoyed huge success in
popular music thanks to "mechanical electronic pop music". "Trans
Europe Express" (1977) and "The Man Machine" (1978) figure as two
commercial classics. The German spacey electronic scene launched by
Tangerine Dream with their outstanding "Alpha Centauri" (1971) and
Cluster "I" & "II" (1971-72) will have echoes everywhere, starting
from the Berlin underground electronic scene (the Berlin School) with
Klaus Schulze ("Timewind" 1974), Michael Hoenig ("Departure from the
Northern Wasteland" 1978), Ashra ("New Age of Earth" 1976), Conrad
Schnitzler's buzz-drones and repetitive electronics ("Zug", "Blau",
Gold" 1972-74) . After several innovations always from Germany we
notice the dark, doomy atmospheric manifests of Nekropolis (Peter
Frohmader) in "Le culte des Goules" (1981), Asmus Tietchens in his
colourful and engaged "Biotop" (1981) and the semi-ambient "Hermeneutic
Music" (1988) by Lars Troschen (sound sculptor and synthesist).
France, the "hypnotic" and "propulsive" electronic essays of Heldon
("Electronic Guerrilla" 1974) and Lard Free ("Spiral Malax"1977)
introduce an inclination for industrial, urban and post-modern sound
projections. The French "avant gardist" Philippe Besombes takes back
the inspiration of " concrete music" (Pierre Henry.) and mixes it to a
hybrid rocking universe (published in 1973, "Libra" figures as a true
classic). Bernard Xolotl in "Prophecy" (1981), "Procession" / "Last
Wave" (1983), Zanov and Didier Bocquer will follow the musical path
anticipated by Klaus Schulze in his kosmische electronic symphonies.
the end of the 70's until the debut of the 80's Albums as "ambient 1:
Music for Airports" (Brian Eno), "Cluster & Eno", "Deluxe" (Hans
Joachim Roedelius side project called Harmonia) will announce the
emergence of the famous ambient movement, musically characterised by
gorgeous shimmering atmospheric textures.
During the 80's,
Maurizio Bianchi will be searching for absolute "haunted" soundscapes,
partly satisfied thanks to sound collages, manipulated tapes and sonic
synth attacks ("Symphony for a Genocide" 1981 and recently the
mesmerising "A.M.B Iehn Tale" 2005). Before him, the 70's Italian
specialists had been (among others) Francesco Cabiati, Francesco
Bucherri, and Francesco Messina for representative, modern and spacey
orchestrations. Albums such as "Mirage" (1979), "Journey" (1979) and
"Prati Bagnati del Monte Analogo" (1979) gain the attention of the
public through their floating, large electronic suites.
contemporary bands and artists in electronic experimentation took their
inspiration from the 70's "kosmische" analog synth psychedelica of
Klaus Schulze, Conrad Schnitzler, Tangerine Dream, etc. In the spaced
out synthesisers spectrum, modern Japanese artists as Yamazaki Maso
(noisy avant garde experimentor who contributes to the Kawabata's
projects named Andromelos, Christina 23 onna) or Takushi Yamazaki
(Space Machine) are key figures. The minimal, moody / lysergic epic
soundscapes of Omit (Clinton Williams), Cloudland Canyon, Astral social
club or Zombi also contribute to the renewal of the "cosmic" synth
genre. Many modern electronic artists have taken an original musical
direction, surfing on post-krautrock ambient waves (Aethenor), on
spherical "abstract" ambient minimalism (Pete Namlook, Biosphere,
Robert Henke) or on trancey, (post) industrial drone hypnosis (Alio Die
/ Amon / Nimh for the italian side and Andrew Chalk with his respective
projects Mirror, Monos and Ora).
To sum up things, the
progressive electronic subgenre is dedicated to intricate, moving,
cerebral, intrusive electronic experiences that get involved in
"kosmische", dark ambient, (post) industrial, droning, surreal or
impressionist soundscapes territories.
All Progressive Electronic artists list
This category represents
the core movement of what is called "Progressive Metal" in the literal
sense. Throughout the years many new styles of progressive metal
emerged more or less independently of the original Progressive Metal
bands. Separating these styles from the core movement helps to prevent
the definition of Prog Metal from "watering down".
Progressive Metal: The Early Years
Metal emerged in the second half of the 1980s. The first bands were
essentially attempting to combine influences from classic prog rock of
the 1970s (bands include YES, GENESIS, KING CRIMSON) and the NWOBHM
(New Wave of British Heavy Metal - bands include DIAMOND HEAD, IRON
MAIDEN, JUDAS PRIEST).
Classic Progressive (Proto-)Power Metal
bands were staying close to a style which would eventually be evolve
into "American Power Metal". This type of Power Metal is not to be
confused with the European style which emerged with bands like
HELLOWEEN a few years later and would lead to a second wave of
Progressive (European) Power Metal bands in the late 1990s.
Classic (Eclectic) Progressive Metal
style came to full bloom in the 1990s. The NWOBHM influence is still
present in the music, but it's not the main ingredient anymore - in
fact one of the trademarks of this style is that it draws from a broad
range of influences which all seem equal in proportion. The resulting
music is very diverse, making it difficult to describe or pin-point.
But it's always melodic and often symphonic, and generally not too
explicitly technical - although bands like DREAM THEATER are often
accused of being too technical and virtuous there are many bands which
take technicality to yet another level.
Progressive Metal: The 1990s
the 1990s American Power Metal continually lost its dominance over the
core movement of Progressive Metal. Instead eclecticism and
melodic/symphonic elements became the dominant attributes. DREAM
THEATER quickly established themselves as the most popular band of the
genre, which also led to them becoming a reference in terms of style.
Every new Progressive Metal band was compared to them, similarly to neo
prog bands being compared to MARILLION, or new Prog Rock bands of the
1990s being compared to SPOCK'S BEARD.
Modern (Eclectic) Progressive Metal
bands and albums represent the "heart" of Progressive Metal. They
managed to refine their music compared to the beginnings in the 1980s,
yet they managed to stay true to the style they had defined with their
early albums - at least at the beginning of the 1990s. Of course there
were fluctuations - some bands are more technical, some are more
symphonic, some albums are more experimental, some are spacey ... but
they all maintain a balance between the influences, and that's why
they're listed here.
Modern Progressive Power Metal (American Style)
a way these bands revived the music which had sparked the Progressive
Metal movement in the 1980s. In the meantime the musical environment
had changed a lot, for example neo-classical elements had been made
popular by one Yngwie J. Malmsteen. This was influential for most
Progressive Metal bands which were rooted in Power Metal.
following bands can largely be attributed to American Power Metal,
although some are borderline to the Eclectic/Mainstream Progressive
Modern Progressive Power Metal (European Style)
bands have even more neoclassical elements, the most extreme example
being RHAPSODY who can be called "Classical Metal", which doesn't
qualify as being prog for many people. Nevertheless their music is
quite demanding to play and contains many elements of serious classical
composition and form, which is a strong indication of progressiveness.
The following list of bands is quite diverse ... despite of them all
being related to European Power Metal they really sound very, very
**Written by MikeEnRegalia**
All Progressive Metal artists list
The denomination Proto Prog
comes from the combination of two words, Proto from the Greek The
earliest,. and Prog which as we know is a short term for Progressive
Rock, so as it's name clearly indicates, refers to the earliest form of
Progressive Rock or Progressive Rock in embryonary state.
bands normally were formed and released albums before Progressive Rock
had completely developed (there are some rare Proto Prog bands from the
early 70's, because the genre didn't expanded to all the Continents
The common elements in all these bands is that
they developed one or more elements of Prog, and even when not
completely defined as part of the genre, they are without any doubt, an
important stage in the evolution of Progressive Rock.
Proto Prog bands are the direct link between Psyche and Prog and for
that reason the Psychedelic components are present in the vast majority
of them, but being that Progressive Rock was born from the blending of
different genres, we have broadened the definition to cover any band
that combined some elements of Progressive Rock with other genres prior
Some of these bands evolved and turned into 100% Prog,
while others simply choose another path, but their importance and
contribution in the formative period of Prog can't be denied, for that
reason no Prog site can ignore them.
Iván Melgar - Morey
All Proto-Prog artists list
Psychedelic Progressive Rock
rock music has its roots in the mid 1960's psychedelic cultural
phenomena. During that time British Invasion and folk-rock bands began
to expand the sonic possibilities of their music. These groups started
slowly to abandon the brief, concise verse-chorus-verse patterns of
rock & roll, and moved towards more free-form, fluid song
structures. Just as important, the groups began incorporating elements
of Indian and Eastern music, and along them the free-from principles of
free jazz were included to the psychedelic sound, emphasising
spontaneous emotions over calculated and estimated construction of
music. Also experimenting with electronically altering instruments and
voices within the studio using new technology was part of the style.
Acid rock groups like THE JIMI HENDRIX EXPERIENCE and CREAM stand as
descriptive and also popular examples of the path from psychedelic
sunshine pop towards more aggressive and strong rock expression,
culminated especially their improvised live performances.
boundary of classifying where the amount of experimentalism and
artistic content of their music justifies term 'progressive' is
probably a thin red line. The early 1960's psychedelic prog pioneers
listed to the Prog Archives are mostly found from the Proto-Prog
section, (unless the band had a longer career like PINK FLOYD), and
among these early psych related are bands like THE BEATLES, THE DOORS,
JEFFERSON AIRPLANE and VANILLA FUDGE for example.
A music being
classified as psychedelic progressive rock may contain the elements
described before with varying combinations, but also the artistic
perspective of progressive rock. The evolvement of the psychedelic
depth within progressive context could be seen for example in the
1960's recordings of ARCADIUM and BABY GRANDMOTHERS. A good example of
the Continental European early 1970's progressive psych rock could be
the album by group AHORA MAZDA, and from Britain JADE WARRIOR's early
records fusion both psychedelic rock and ethnic music. Two groups
producing vintage music today in the tradition of 60's/70's style and
sound could be THE SPACIOUS MINDS and ACID MOTHER'S TEMPLE. As the
psychedelic movement was a large cultural phenomenon, it is difficult
to fence psychedelic progressive rock into a one tight category.
Psychedelic progressive rock has been developing to various different
directions, which have been classified as their own genres and sub
Progressive Space Rock
In the late
1960s space rock emerged from psychedelic rock with the result of quasi
binovular twins. The bands began to assimilate krautrock elements like
repetitive hypnotic beats and electronic/ambient soundscapes. The
typical instrumentation includes the synthesizer which generally offers
bubbling tones and spacey patterns provoking a gliding flow. Guitars
are played with glissando technique and delay/echo effects in
preference. Reggae/dub elements are to detect here and there. Space
rock is often coupled with the use of drugs and a mind-expanding
approach, similar to krautrock. Several bands combine their live
performances with a trippy lightshow using random fractals. Albums are
mostly provided with at least one long meandering jam based on a main
theme, loops and slight variations respectively ups and downs in waves.
will often take notice of stories, pictures and album/song titles
referring to cosmic themes. HAWKWIND's live album 'Ritual' is said to
be the ultimate space rock album because of the collaboration with
sci-fi author Michael Moorcock. His lyrics are performed by a narrator
and underlaid with synth elements. PINK FLOYD can be treated as
pioneers of spacey music during the band's early phase, for example
some songs of 'The Piper At The Gates Of Dawn' or the live recordings
of 'Ummagumma' with the stirring 'Careful With That Axe Eugene'.
GROBSCHNITT's epic 'Solar Music' is counted among the space rock
classics too. UFO, which released the extraordinary album 'Flying - One
Hour Space Rock' in 1971, stands for those rock bands which were
influenced by this style at least for a while. Another often mentioned
band is GONG which offered some groundbreaking genre albums in the
A space rock community is existing in nearly every
country more or less. Swedish bands are known for a brisk exchange of
musicians among each other. The 'Strange Daze' festivals from 1997-2000
showcased the American space rock scene. Japan is an unexhaustible
reservoir of psychedelic and space prog output. Some other
representative bands of the style are ORESUND SPACE COLLECTIVE with the
focus on long grooving improvisations, QUARKSPACE and OZRIC TENTACLES
emphasizing more electronic elements or VESPERO and HIDRIA SPACEFOLK
with a significant ethnic component. Other groups like ESCAPADE and THE
LEGENDARY PINK DOTS are standing for an avantgarde style whereas the
sound of SUBARACHNOID SPACE or KINSKI is provided with transitions to
the post rock genre.
Interfaces with other prog genres
psychedelic culture influenced largely the whole western pop culture
scene, psychedelic elements can be found from the other prog genres
too. Psychedelic Folk / Acid Folk is a large and delightful sub genre,
and in Prog Archives these bands can be found from the PROG FOLK
category, earliest of them being PROTO-PROG similar time. As an example
group, FAIRPORT CONVENTION with SANDY DENNY released few albums, which
combined traditional folk music with psychedelic elements, and their
long song 'A Sailor's Life' with real interactive improvisational
playing had a big influence on psychedelic folk groups like THE TREES.
Some psychedelic oriented folk bands also played music outside from the
Anglo-Saxon frame of reference, like Italian AKTUALA, blended
Middle-Eastern folk music to their records, and British JADE WARRIOR
was seeking influences form Japanese and African music. Groups like THE
THIRD EAR BAND and QUINTESSENCE experimented with elements from eastern
and Indian music, which kind of bands are found more from the genre
INDO-PROG/RAGA ROCK. Instead of European roots these artists take their
elements from raga, classical India music. During mid-60's RAVI SHANKAR
brought raga to success in the Western Christian industrial countries,
and it's qualities were adopted to psychedelic culture, as both raga
and psychedelia focus on the state of emotional trance. Example record
from this genre could be SEVENTH SONS album 'Raga' from year 1964.
Germany the groups which were influenced by the British psychedelia,
formed their own genre called KRAUTROCK. The early 1970's groups of
this genre represent the progressive acid rock sound of Germany,
experimenting long instrumental improvisations emphasizing use of
psychedelic effects and weird electronic sounds. Examples of these
groups could be AMON DÜÜL, ASH RA TEMPEL, CAN, GÄA, NECRONOMICON and
YATHA SIDHRA. PROGRESSIVE ELECTRONIC style emerged from Krautrock, and
some of their most influential artists like TANGERINE DREAM and KLAUS
SCHULZE started with very psychedelic musical style, also being part in
the evolvement of 'space rock' sound.
In addition of these
genres and examples, psychedelic elements can be found from many other
genres of progressive rock. The psychedelic cultural explosion had an
immense influence to the western popular culture, and hints of it can
still be heard also outside the field of progressive rock music scope,
for example in the stoner rock music, or in the collective techno rave
parties carrying the legacy of the audiovisual attack 1968 PINK FLOYD
Space rock definition by Rivertree, April 2009
Other text by Eetu Pellonpää October 2006/April 2009
All Psychedelic/Space Rock artists list
Rock in Opposition
What is Rock in Opposition?
In Opposition - or RIO for short - is the name of a short lived
movement that has gone on to define a genre of music, and which is now
applied to musicians whose careers hadn't even started when the first
RIO festival took place in London in 1978.
the 1970s Henry Cow had, like other more left field bands, enjoyed
greater popularity in mainland Europe than they did in the UK. They
toured extensively and made contact with similarly inclined bands, most
of whom were working independently and had no distribution or realistic
opportunity of touring outside their native countries. The idea of Rock
In Opposition was to create an independent network of like minded
performers that would not be dependent on the largesse of major record
companies for their survival.
===written by Chris Gleeson===
like-minded bands were invited to play at the Rock in Opposition
festival, alongside Henry Cow, on 12th March 1978, at the New London
Theatre, Drury Lane in London. The British Arts Council helped the
funding of the festival with a £1000 grant.
The Rock in
Opposition slogan "The music the record companies don't want you to
hear" was altered very slightly for the flyer advertising the first
Rock in Opposition concert.
The five initial Rock in Opposition bands:
Henry Cow (England)
Univers Zero (Belgium)
Etron Fou Leloublan (France)
Samla Mammas Manna (Sweden) - at the time they recorded as Zamla Mammaz Manna
Stormy Six (Italy)
festival generated a lot of interest around the world at the time
within the media, as nothing like this had been done before. This
somewhat surprised the members of the bands involved and so it was
decided to reconvene at Sunrise Studios in Kirchberg, Switzerland in
December 1978, to decide on the future of the movement. Henry Cow as a
band, had disbanded by this time (some of the members went on to form
Art Bears), but two of the former members of Henry Cow, Chris Cutler
and Fred Frith (and likely others) still participated in the
discussions in Kirchberg.
The decision was to continue with the
movement, but it was decided to keep membership of new bands to a
minimum and to also make sure they adhered to some key elements:
A) That of musical excellence. This depending on our collective evaluation of same - a source of much fruitful discussion.
B) That of working actively outside the music business.
C) That of having 'a social commitment to Rock'
who only record or only perform could qualify but they should have a
permanent continuity of existence. The total number of members should
Note: the above list is written by Chris Cutler himself.
Three new bands were elected:
Art Zoyd (France) - who had previously toured with Univers Zero and had members of Univers Zero perform on their albums
Art Bears (England) - who consisted of former members of Henry Cow: Chris Cutler, Fred Frith and Dagmar Krause
Aksak Maboul (Belgium) - who had former members of Univers Zero as well as Chris Cutler and Fred Frith amongst them
===written by James R. Yeowell===
had many disagreements in that meeting about the purpose of the group,
and its meaning. They eventually came up with a plan to continue their
joined concerts. They organized three more festivals and cooperative
record distributions but eventually the RIO group dissolved, leaving
behind a legacy that would be picked up by newer bands and the RIO
RIO therefore, is not a particular sound, but
rather an attitude towards creating music. The original bands did not
have much in common in terms of sound. Today however one can define a
band as RIO if it follows a certain musical path, similar to that of
one of the founders. This way, bands like Miriodor or Ensemble Nimbus
can be said to have been influenced by Samla Mammas Manna; a band like
Sotos or Zaar can be compared to Present, or Univers Zero.
====written by Assaf Vestin===
Date of RIO festivals:
12 March 1978 at New London Theatre, Drury Lane, London, England (set up by Henry Cow)
26 April 1979 to 1 May 1979 at Teatro dell'Elfo, Milano, Italia (set up by Stormy Six)
28/29 September 1979 in Uppsala, Sweden (set up by Samla Mammas Manna)
Bruxelles, Belgium (set up by Univers Zero)
So what do these bands sound like?
already stated, all of the bands involved within the Rock in Opposition
movement had an avant-garde side to them, some more so than others.
Cow took influences from contemporary classical and chamber music, as
well as jazz fusion (such as Miles Davis) and when Dagmar Krause (a
German by birth) joined, many of their vocals sounded like the Lieder
music of Franz Schubert and also had a Bertold Brecht style to them.
All of their music was scored, yet used complex time signatures, free
improvisation and often used experimental tape manipulations.
Zero took influences from contemporary classical and chamber music,
such as Igor Stravinsky, Anton Webern, Albert Huybrechts and Béla
Bartók, but generally were darker than Henry Cow in sound and had much
less of a jazz influence.
Etron Fou Leloublan took influences
from French music hall, jazz and the burgeoning punk scene. Their music
was generally comedic in nature and very difficult to listen to,
especially on their debut album.
Samla Mannas Manna/Zamla Mammaz
Manna took their influences from Frank Zappa and Captain Beefheart and
also had circus music influences. Again, their music is humorous and
wacky in nature.
Stormy Six took their influences from folk
music (their debut album was released in 1969, years before the RIO
scene was thought of) and their lyrics were generally political and
sang in Italian. They were perhaps the least avant-garde of the bands
involved in the movement, but they were one of the most vocal,
arranging their own RIO festival.
Firstly, to quote Chris Cutler:
its ten minutes of fame, RIO verified something, it set a ball rolling,
it made things happen that made other things happen. In that sense, it
was a success. Without it, someone else would have had to have invented
it. Of course, the more complex issues were abandoned. Perhaps they
could not really have been faced. We raised them though; they are still
in the file labelled: Unfinished Business."
The Rock in
Opposition movement ended in 1979 with a fizzle, but its legacy is very
strong. So much so, that a Rock in Opposition festival took place in
Carmaux in France in April 2007. None of the original bands performed,
but many associated bands and musicians did, including Chris Cutler who
performed with former Slapp Happy and Henry Cow member Peter Blegvad.
The bands and musicians present at the RIO festival in April 2007 were:
Magma (actually a longtime associated band that played alongside Univers Zero in the 1970s)
Faust (who toured with Henry Cow in their earlier pre-RIO days)
Peter Blegvad (with Chris Cutler)
Present (an offshoot band of Univers Zero, set-up by former Univers Zero drummer Daniel Denis)
NeBeLNeST (a French chamber rock band)
Salle Gaveau (a Japanese chamber rock band)
well as the above festival, many bands influenced by the original Rock
in Opposition bands continued to be formed in the 1980s to the present
and the scene is perhaps more popular now than it ever has been.
independent record labels have also been formed because of the Rock in
Opposition movement, including Recommended Records/ReR Megacorps,
RecRec (an offshoot of ReR in Switzerland), ReR USA (the US branch of
ReR), ZNR Records, AYAA (a French off-shoot of ReR), Cuneiform Records
and Crammed Discs (set-up by Marc Hollander of Aksak Maboul).
===written by James R. Yeowell===
the last 20 years Japan has boasted one of the most exciting and
innovative Avant-prog scenes in the world. Widely, the scene finds its
characteristics defined by harsh unrelenting compositions factoring
exceptional displays of musicianship. While influences have been
amassed from far and wide - with the likes of Captain Beefheart and
John Zorn - the most direct influence can be linked to Keiji Haino
(guitar, vocal, percussion [on occasions]). His works range an
embodiment of rock, free improvisation, noise, psychedelic, minimalism
etc. The archetypal sound and structure [deconstruction maybe a better
term] of the Japanese Underground scene was founded with Haino's
improvisational rock group Lost Aaraaf (1970) - later continued with
Fush*tsusha. To this day Haino's influence is still widely recognized
throughout the scene, with his involvement with many of the leading
musician from numerous bands: Ruins, Ground Zero, and Altered States.
Evolving into the formation of Knead and Sanhedolin. Upon a thorough
investigating of the scene, one finds deep interconnections between
bands, lending to a communal type atmosphere [not too far from the
Canterbury scene]. While generally closeted to the outside world,
Japan's impact on the worldwide Avant-prog scene has been remarkable.
John Zorn has played a crucial roll in the globalization and
distributions of Japanese music with his personal label Tzadik,
detailing the 'New Japan' movement.
The mid 80's saw the
principles of Japanese Avant-prog firmly planned, with the formation of
the power duo Ruins ('85). Lead by brainchild Tatsuya Yoshida (drums,
vocal, keyboard, guitar), Ruins plays an intense fusion between punk
and progressive rock. Yoshida's drumming was highly influenced by
Christian Vander (Magma), honing in on the remarkable technical
capabilities, while lacking some of the more emotional entities.
Yoshida is infamous for his infinite collaborative work, some of his
other bands/collaborations include: Akaten, Tairikuoto vs'
Sanmyakuonns, Seikazoku, Musica Transonic, Sunkick, Koenji Hyakkei,
Knead, Soft Mountain, Zubi Zuva, not to mention the numerous
collaborations with John Zorn [the list goes on].
Round the same
time ('86) as Ruins, world famous noise rockers 'Boredoms' escaped from
the underground, fronted by the ever-charismatic Yamatsuka Eye [better
known as simply eYe today]. From the word go 'Boredoms' crafted a raw,
eccentric form of punk styled noise, fixating on the humorous side of
life. Over the years 'Boredoms' sound evolved tremendously in to a
mature mix between Avant-prog, psych, krautrock and noise. With a
line-up of three percussionist, plus eYe, their sound revolves
intensely on the rhythmic textures. Once again ties with John Zorn are
present, entailing eYe's involvement with the Naked City projects.
Yoshimi P-We (percussion, vocals, guitar) later went on to form the
solely female band OOIOO, which can be paralleled as a subdued
'Boredoms' with subtle complexity.
Ground Zero [now defunct]
formed under the guidance of turntablist/guitarist Otomo Yoshihide and
stands as one of the most famous groups from the Japanese underground
scene. Forming in 1990, Ground Zero's sound deviated from the classic
Avant-prog scene. Their compositions were generally a profound mix of
sampled/recorded sounds, noise and improvisation. Otomo Yoshihide is
just as prolific a musician/composer as Yoshida, playing with a huge
proportion of the underground scene and numerous American
contemporaries. Both Nasuno Mitsuru (bass, vocals) and Yoshigaki
Yasuhiro (drums) from Ground Zero went onto form Altered States - who
were a cross between Art rock and Avant/free Jazz.
proportions of the scene are defined by harsh dissonance, there is also
a more refined branch influenced by Jazz and RIO. Tipographica, were a
great example of this, with their delicate blend of RIO and Canterbury,
focusing on a fusion between improvisational jazz and contemporary
classical. Their saxophonist Kikuchi Naruyoshi went on to form 'Date
Course Pentagon Royal Garden' whose album is sometimes hailed as the
Japanese 'Bitches Brew'. Alternatively 'After Dinner' portrays the
softer, pop-orientated RIO, in vain of 'Art Bears'
scene is still taking quantum leaps. While many of the original bands
are still active, new generations are keeping speed with new innovative
revelations. With the likes of OOIOO, Le Silo and Pochakaite Malko the
scene is far from its creative ends.
===written by Adam Rutter===
Thanks to the RIO/Avant-prog team for their collaborations with this definition.
All RIO/Avant-Prog artists list
Rock Progressivo Italiano
Indeed so much
progressive music has emerged and continues to emerge from Italy that
some people believe it belongs in its own sub-genre. Lyrics are almost
entirely in Italian. Compositions sometimes follow traditional Italian
arrangements and compositional style, some based on particular regions
of Italy. However, Italian prog styles can, and do, also fall within
all of the other sub-genres.
All Rock Progressivo Italiano artists list
Symphonic is without doubt
the sub-genre that includes the most bands in Progressive Rock because
for many people it's almost synonymous classic Prog, something easy to
understand being that most of the classic and/or
pioneer bands released music that could be included in this sub-genre,
except JETHRO TULL and PINK FLOYD (who still blended some symphonic
elements), even KING CRIMSON who very soon expanded their horizons to
more experimental music, made their debut with a Symphonic album, "In
the Court of the Crimson King" which is a cornerstone in the
development of the genre.
The main characteristics of Symphonic
are the ones that defined all Progressive Rock: (There's nothing 100%
new under the sun) which among others are:
- Mixture of elements from different genres.
- Complex time signatures.
- Lush keyboards.
- Explorative and intelligent lyrics, in some cases close to fantasy literature, Sci Fi and even political issues.
- Non commercial approach
- Longer format of songs
this specific case the main characteristic is the influence of
Classical music (understood as Orchestral works created from the late
Gothic to Modern Classical) using normally more complex structure than
other related sub-genres like Neo Progressive (That's why sometimes the
borderline that divides Symphonic from Neo is so unclear being that is
based mostly in a degree of complexity rather than in an evident
structural difference)..It is easy to find long keyboard solos
reminiscent of Johan Sebastian Bach or melodic works that could have
been written by Handel.
As in any other genre, different
Symphonic bands had different approaches to Classic Music, for example
YES and GENESIS are mainly influenced by the Baroque and Classical
periods, while EMERSON LAKE & PALMER has a predilection for post
Romantic and modern authors like Mussorgsky, Rimsky Korsakov, Bartok or
Ginastera, being that their sound is less melodic and more aggressive.
peak of the genre starts in 1969 and lasts until the mid/late 70's
(more precisely until the release of A Trick of the Tale), when the
genre begins to blend more mainstream influences that took to the
birth of Neo Progressive (a new approach for a new decade).
important to remember that even though the creative peak of Symphonic
Progressive ended before the 80's, we can find a second birth in the
90's coming from the Scandinavian countries (specially Sweden with
ANGLAGARD or PAR LINDH PROJECT) and even bands that still in the 21st
Century recreate music from this period like SPOCK'S BEARD or ECHOLYN.
ending this short description I feel necessary to say (In order to be
strictly accurate) that the term Symphonic is not 100% exact,
because these bands very rarely played symphonies and was probably used
because the music that influenced the genre was performed by Symphony
Orchestras, but it is so widely accepted by the Progressive Rock
community that would be absurd and futile for anybody to attempt a
change after so much time.
Iván Melgar Morey, Peru 2006
All Symphonic Prog artists list
Tech/Extreme Prog Metal
contains a very broad range of bands. Most of them have one thing in
common: technicality. Their music is very demanding to play and to
listen to. The word "Extreme" has been added to the name of the
category because most bands which are based in extreme metal genres
(Thrash Metal, Death Metal, Black Metal) are also quite technical
and/or achieve their progressiveness by making their music exceedingly
The Early Years
There were few
bands in the 1980s or early 1990s which can be attributed to this
category. This is mostly due to the fact that the genres most of these
bands are rooted in didn't exist yet. Even the bands listed as Avant -
which aren't based on a fixed genre like Thrash or Death - needed these
fixed genres as an influence. There are a few though - most notably
WATCHTOWER and ATHEIST (Thrash), CYNIC (Jazz-Fusion/Thrash) and
PESTILENCE (Black Metal).
The Modern Phase
phase begins in the late 1990s. Thrash Metal and Death Metal had
existed for about 10 years, Black Metal for about 5 years and bands
were looking for new ways to express themselves. Similarly to the
classic Progressive Metal bands of the 1980s they picked their favorite
style of metal and added progressive elements - only this time it
wasn't NWOBHM but a more extreme kind of metal instead.
slightly different for the Tech/Shred and Jazz-Fusion subcategories:
Although the musicians of these bands often had a background in extreme
metal they left the extreme elements behind and replaced them with
other "things" ... often elements from Jazz-Fusion, but sometimes also
from Classical music or classic Prog Rock / Prog-Fusion. A good example
for such a transition is the late Chuck Schuldiner who not only turned
his band (DEATH) from a standard Death Metal outfit into the first
Progressive Death Metal band (as can be heard on "The Sound of
Perseverance"), but also released a brilliant album under the band name
CONTROL DENIED which wasn't Death Metal at all.
Avant-Garde Prog Metal
a way this sub category can be seen as the counterpart to
"RIO/Avant-Prog". All these bands are very experimental in an
avant-garde fashion ... their music is difficult to "process" for
people not used to this level of "quirkiness". Often weird and unusual
instrumentation is used, or instruments used in unusual ways which defy
the laws of tradition.
Progressive Thrash Metal
name pretty much says it all. Technicality is an inherent property of
Thrash Metal, so in order to achieve progressiveness the bands must add
other elements to their music - usually experimentation, Jazz
influences or a more epic and complex approach to songwriting.
Progressive Death Metal
is not to be confused with "Technical Death Metal", a non-prog genre.
Like explained in the previous category technicality alone is not
enough to achieve progressiveness.
Progressive Black Metal
Metal is not a very technical genre - at least the original,
"old-school" Black Metal is inherently non-technical and lo-fi.
Typically the bands listed here are much more technical than the usual
Black Metal outfit and/or add avant-garde elements to the music, or a
more epic approach to songwriting.
Progressive Technical Metal
category is quite similar to Progressive Metal Fusion - Jazz elements
are frequently used, but not to the same extent. Usually this type of
music is instrumental (exceptions confirm the rule), and it's a lot
less weird than the Avant-Garde Progressive Metal bands. Often these
bands try to make their composition as difficult to play as humanly
possible (CANVAS SOLARIS said that in interviews).
Progressive Metal Fusion
bands are applying Jazz-Fusion to Metal ... the results can turn out
quite differently depending on which type of Jazz-Fusion is applied to
which type of Metal.
**Written by MikeEnRegalia**
All Tech/Extreme Prog Metal artists list
Albums or CD's where more
than one artist is featured either as a SAMPLER or a TRIBUTE to a
particular band. Examples: - Peter and The Wolf - Prog Fairytale - 1975
/ The Reading Room - 2000 / Leonardo - The Absolute Man - 2001 / Best
Prog Rock Album in the World... Ever - 2003 / Un Voyage En Progressif
Volume 1 to 8 / Kalevala - A Finnish Progressive Rock Epic.
All Various Genres artists list
Zeuhl is an adjective in Kobaïan, the language written by Christian Vander, drummer and founder of the French band Magma.
zEU(h)l, while the EU are like a French E with a slight U, and the (h)
is a semi-silent letter which is an integrated part of the EU, totaling
in a "syllable and a half".
The word means celestial, although
many times it is misunderstood as meaning "celestial music", since the
members of Magma describe the genre of their music as Zeuhl. Zeuhl
Wortz, though, means Music of the universal might.
is a mixture of musical genres like Neoclassicism, Romanticism,
Modernism and Fusion. Common elements: oppressive or
discipline-conveying feel, marching themes, throbbing bass, an ethereal
piano or Rhodes piano, and brass instruments.
All Zeuhl artists list
BLOG post (opened discussion)
More progressive rock related documents index written by PA collaborator